Chapter 5 Test - Listening and Critical Thinking

T F 1. Saying "Yes, I understand your explanation" is an example of a descriptive, nonevaluative response.

T F 2. Defensiveness is an example of positive feedback.

T F 3. Active listening can be defined as involved listening with a purpose.

T F 4. If a person responds by asking, "Are you suggesting that I am not doing my job on this project?," you could classify the response as an example of defensiveness.

T F 5. Accuracy and validity are the two measures of a deductive argument.

T F 6. Empathic listening is essentially the same as active listening with the added provision that it includes a special effort to reach an understanding with another person.

T F 7. Listening is the process of perceiving and interpreting aural stimuli.

T F 8. Interpretation is the goal of observation; reporting is the goal of inferences.

T F 9. "You wouldn't think that way if you had been a cop as long as I have" is an example of experiential superiority.

T F 10. Most people know and believe that they do not listen well.

T F 11. Critical listening challenges the speaker's message and evaluates its accuracy, meaningfulness, and utility.

T F 12. An inductive argument moves from a general proposition to a specific instance.

T F 13. Americans tend to spend more time reading and writing than listening.

T F 14. "Don't listen to her ideas about welfare; she's just a rag picker" is an example of an appeal to authority.

T F 15. A syllogism is a deductive argument with a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.

T F 16. A fallacy is a flawed argument, an argument that does not follow the rules of logic.

T F 17. An enthymeme is just another name for a syllogism.

T F 18. Active listening is marked by involvement; empathetic listening, by judgement; and critical thinking, by understanding.

T F 19. Critical listening and critical thinking both involve gathering information, idea or arguments; establishing a basis for evaluation; and applying those standards to the information and ideas you have gathered.

T F 20. The opposite of empathy is not hostility but neutrality.

T F 21. Two obstacles to effective listening that seem very closely related are self-focus and egocentrism.

T F 22. When the language itself distracts you from listening, it is called a semantic distraction.

T F 23. Being distracted by a blinking light while you are supposed to be listening is an example of a mental distraction.

T F 24. Propositions and their justification are the ingredients of arguments.

T F 25. Students can recall more information after listening to it if they are told in advance that they will be tested and graded on the information.

T F 26. "She got pregnant right after our vacation, so vacations must cause pregnancy" is an example of a hasty generalization.

T F 27. Egocentrism is defensiveness carried to an extreme.

T F 28. College students tend to spend half of their communication time in face-to-face and mass media listening.

T F 29. Hearing your stereo in the background as you study is an example of active listening.

T F 30. You hear with your brain; you listen with your ear.

T F 31. Hearing is difficult to avoid because it is physiological; listening is easier to avoid because it is psychological.

32. Which of the following is an inference?

A. I see that road is narrow and curvy.

B. There is no shoulder, and there is no centerline.

C. The road appears dangerous for ordinary travel.

D. The trees grow close to the road, thus reducing light.

33. Which of the following best exhibits critical thinking?

A. You are able to memorize what you hear.

B. You are able to recall most of what you listen to.

C. You are able to interpret what you hear and apply it to other knowledge.

D. You are able to use what you know to apply standards to what you hear and decide the merits of the message.

34. Which of the following is NOT necessarily part of the process of listening?

A. The stimuli are picked up by the ear.

B. The nerves transmit sensations to the brain.

C. The brain assigns meanings to the stimuli.

D. The receiver responds with a return message.

35. Which of the following nonverbal characteristics does NOT illustrate positive feedback?

A. forward body lean

B. increased touching

C. neutral expression

D. movement toward speaker

36. A person who gets so involved in the particulars that she misses the main point is demonstrating an example of a

A. semantic distraction

B. factual distraction

C. mental distraction

D. physical distraction

37. Empathic listening differs from active listening in that

A. active listening is one kind of empathic listening

B. active and empathic listening are both purposeful

C. empathic listening adds the goal of understanding

D. empathic listening invites more feedback

38. Which of the following is an example of hearing rather than listening:

A. He heard what she said and responded with an appropriate answer.

B. The sound of firecrackers filled the nighttime air.

C. He heard the sound outside and decided that the noise must have been a car accident.

D. She heard his cry for help and reacted by immediately calling the rescue squad.

39. Which of the following statements about active listening is false?

A. Active listening is "involved listening with a purpose."

B. Active and empathic listening are exactly the same thing.

C. Active listening is characterized by movement, change, and responsiveness on the part of the listener.

D. Active listening implies feedback to the speaker.

40. "You can accept the governor's plan or his opponent's, but the opponent's plan will bankrupt the state" is a statement exemplifying what fallacy?

A. equivocation

B. irrelevant conclusion

C. false alternatives

D. begging the question

41. Which two concepts seem most closely related?

A. self-focus and egocentrism

B. defensiveness and self-focus

C. experiential superiority and defensiveness

D. egocentrism and defensiveness

42. Which of the following statements about deductive arguments is false?

A. Deductive arguments result in a conclusion.

B. Deductive arguments have three parts.

C. A partial deductive argument is an enthymeme,

D. Deductive arguments require an inference.

43. Deductive arguments must be checked for validity and

A. accuracy

B. form

C. arrangement

D. appropriateness of inference

44. Which of the following statements about syllogisms is false?

A. A syllogism has a major premise

B. A syllogism has a generalization

C. A syllogism has a minor premise

D. A syllogism has three parts

45. Which of the following is an example of a physical distraction to listening.

A. I didn't know what he said because I was so worried about what the kids were doing in my absence.

B. Are you kidding? All I could think about was my vacation that starts tomorrow.

C. The two people talking in the row ahead of me kept me from catching very much of his lecture.

46. "If one member of the gang is a murderer, then they all are" is an example of which fallacy?

A. division

B. false cause

C. appeal to the people

D. appeal to authority

47. Which of the following statements about listening is false?

A. People tend to think they listen well when they do not.

B. People who are motivated remember more than those who are not.

C. Motivated people remember about half of what they heard when tested immediately after listening to the message.

D. Two months after listening to a message, the receivers will not remember the message at all.

48. Which of the following arguments illustrates the fallacy called the hasty generalization?

A. You're nothing but a skinhead, so I'm not listening to your ideas.

B. Smoking causes cancer.

C. I ate oysters and got sick, so they must cause illness.

D. I was jilted by a woman once, so I'll never trust women again.

49. Which of the following is a logical proof?

A. The Lord says you shall have no other gods before you.

B. If the pro-choice advocates have their way, they will be held responsible for murder.

C. You should study public speaking because the faculty has made the course a requirement.

D. Use Ivory soap because it is inexpensive, antibacterial, safe and effective.

50. Which of the following statements about inductive arguments is false?

A. Inductive arguments include a number of specific instances.

B. Inductive arguments include a major and minor premise.

C. Inductive arguments result in a generalization.

D. Inductive arguments require an inference.

51. College students spend approximately what proportion of their time listening to others and the mass media?

A. 50 percent

B. 25 percent

C. 75 percent

D. 65 percent

52. Focusing on main points is a method of avoiding

A. semantic distractions

B. factual distractions

C. organizational distractions

D. physical distractions